For our third installment of breath myth-busting, we hear from presenters Lynn Martin and Jessica Wolf – two of the country’s most experienced breath educators – who weigh in on the subject of breath-holding.
MYTH: “habitual breath-holding is harmless.”
There is nothing positive to be said about habitual breath-holding. It is often an involuntary response to a moment of anxiety or stress. Many of us hold our breaths when we are trying to think of the best verbal response to a challenge, or the correct answer to a question that has been posed. But there is no perceivable benefit to doing that. If one needs a pause to think before speaking, it would be more productive to continue the flow of air into and out of the lungs while pondering the situation, thereby increasing the possibility of oxygen renewal to the brain.
Breath-holding interrupts the synergy and organization of the neuro-musculo-skeletal coordination that keeps the breathing process moving freely and fluidly. Breath-holding brings the diaphragm and all of the respiratory muscles to a sudden halt. It builds up unnecessary pressure in the thorax and in the throat, also interfering with the potential oscillation of the vocal folds as they prepare for the next spoken utterance.
Our teacher, Carl Stough, coached competing swimmers not to hold the breath while swimming under water. He suggested that the swimmer should first inhale and then extend the exhalation phase for the duration of time that the head is submerged, surface for the next inhalation, then exhale again under water, thus keeping the continuity of breathing movement.
As promised, here’s our next breath “mythbusting” contribution courtesy of my esteemed colleague and co-presenter Amy Matthews
MYTH: “Deep breathing is always better.”
It is NOT true that we should always breathe as deeply as we possibly can. There is not one single ‘right way’ to breathe, and the most effective breath is the one that is most suited to that person, in that moment.
Sometimes a shallow breath is the most effective choice – in biological systems the qualities of being deepest, longest and biggest are not necessarily indicators of success. Success arises from being effective . . . just good enough. So taking a deeper breath than we need might literally be a waste of time and energy.
Instead of always going for deeper and stronger breaths, can we instead cultivate adaptability and responsiveness?
As a lead-up to the event, our presenters will share their favorite breath education myths, which they will debunk at the event. For me, myth #1 is probably the most pervasive one in the field: the term diaphragmatic breathing itself. If I had my way, I’d completely banish the term from breath education.
ALL breathing is diaphragmatic. No living person should ever be told that they aren’t using their diaphragm unless they suffer from paralysis (and in that case, why would you say it to them in the first place? — they already know).
The term “diaphragmatic breathing” is as redundant and silly as the term “foot walking.” When that term gets used, it’s intended to distinguish healthy breathing (diaphragmatic) from some other pattern an educator has judged to be unhealthy, but it would be absurd to say the unhealthy pattern is “non-diaphragmatic.” The real issue isn’t whether the diaphragm is working or not, it’s whether it is able to work to its full efficiency without undue obstruction.
Ten years ago, I produced a weekend symposium for Kripalu called “The Future of Breathing.” To celebrate the anniversary of that wonderful event, I’ve put together a lineup of friends and esteemed breathing experts who will join me at The Breathing Project in October.
Event details are below and early discounted registration is now open. There is limited space at this intimate event, so sign up soon! Future e-Sutra posts will feature interviews with all of the presenters.
Saturday & Sunday, October 24–25, 2015, 9:30am – 5:00pm
Do you teach or coach voice, acting, yoga, movement or fitness?
Do you work in a therapeutic context as a bodyworker, physical therapist, respiratory therapist or trauma therapist?
Do you engage with breathing as part of your therapeutic, teaching or personal practice?
Are you interested in what’s going on in related fields and modalities on the topic of breath?
Are you curious about where flawed assumptions, inaccurate anatomy and limited perspectives might be affecting your choices?
Join us for a special weekend symposium on breath education where we’ll dive into an expansive and inclusive inquiry into working with people and their breath. Leslie Kaminoff has gathered fellow practitioners and innovators from multiple disciplines who, like himself, are deeply engaged in questions around breathing and embodiment. Each presenter will present and share about what they’re curious and passionate about in the realm of breathing. The weekend will include lecture, interactive sessions, experiential learning, movement explorations and opportunities for Q&A.
The Art of Breathing Coordination and the Kinesthetic Voice
with Jessica Wolf & Lynn Martin
Join Jessica and Lynn as they co-present the following topics:
Introduction to Breathing Coordination
Animated film created by Jessica Wolf
Common misconceptions about breathing
Guided practices to enhance awareness of body, breath and voice
Development of kinesthetic voice related practices
Lynn Martin teaches functional anatomy, Ideokinesis and Breathing Coordination at New York University, in the Tisch Dance Department, Tisch School of the Arts. Lynn has studied functional anatomy and Ideokinesis extensively with Irene Dowd, who teaches at The Juilliard School and who studied there with Dr. Lulu Sweigard.
For many years, Lynn Martin also studied Breathing Coordination with Carl Stough. As a member of the Board of Directors, she worked with The Stough Institute on special educational projects and was Associate Producer of a documentary video, Breathing: The Source of Life.
Her background also includes studies in AfroCaribbean music and dance with Montego Joe, Pamela Patrick, Pat Hall, Jean-Léon Destiné and Serge St. Juste. She studied voice with Conrad L. Osborne and has sung much of the great choral-orchestral repertoire with The Cecilia Chorus of N.Y. at Carnegie Hall and Lincoln Center.
A summa cum laude graduate of Fordham University, Lynn has also taught at the Laban/Bartenieff Institute of Movement Studies, the Westchester Conservatory of Music, Brooklyn College, the National Association of Teachers of Singing and the Alvin Ailey American Dance Center. She maintains a private practice in Ideokinesis and Breathing Coordination and teaches workshops in New York City and Switzerland.
Jessica Wolf, M.AmSAT, is an internationally recognized teacher of the Alexander Technique. She completed her training at the American Center for the Alexander Technique in 1977 and is one of the few Alexander professionals who have been teaching for more than 35 years. Throughout her career, she has explored and conducted research in respiratory function.
In 1998, Jessica established the Alexander Technique program at Yale School of Drama, where she now holds the position of Associate Professor. In 2002, she became the founder and director of the first post-graduate training program for Alexander teachers in “Jessica Wolf’s Art of Breathing.” She has certified 60 Alexander teachers around the world. Other faculty appointments include the Aspen Music Festival, The Juilliard School, SUNY Purchase, Circle in the Square Theater School, Hunter College, Sarah Lawrence College, and the Verbier Music Festival.
Jessica created the first three-dimensional animated film of the respiratory system and published Jessica Wolf’s Art of Breathing: Collected Articles in 2013. She coaches many performing artists who appear on and off Broadway, as well as in film and television. Jessica travels extensively giving workshops to performers and health care providers.
The Physiology of Healthy Breathing
with Dr. Robert Fried
Dr. Fried will help us to define healthy breathing in terms of its physiological characteristics. He will explain and demonstrate the basic instrumentation for monitoring the measurable parameters of lung and blood gases, and heart rate variability. With the insights provided by such monitoring, Dr. Fried will show how it’s possible to identify common patterns of breathing that could adversely alter respiratory function, and reveal the adverse consequences of abnormal lung and blood gases on a variety of physical conditions ranging from heart and kidney ailments to anxiety and hypertension.
Robert Fried, Ph.D., is Emeritus Professor, Doctoral Faculty in Behavioral Neuroscience, City University of New York (CUNY) and Emeritus, American Physiology Society (APS) (Cardiovascular and Respiration Div.), and world-renowned expert in the treatment of stress and anxiety.
He is the author of The Arginine Solution, The Hyperventilation Syndrome, and The Breath Connection, and is former Director of the Stress and Biofeedback Clinic of the Ellis Institute for Rational Emotive Therapy in New York City, where he lives.
An Embodied Inquiry into Internal Respiration
with Amy Matthews
Amy will explore the movement of the breath after it enters the lungs, as it travels through blood to its final destination in the cells. This journey of internal respiration can be explored in relationship to any pattern of external breathing.
Embodying the processes of internal respiration can be a way to expand the experience of breathing from the landmarks of external respiration (thorax, lungs, ribcage and diaphragm) into an experience of breathing in every tissue of our body. We can also use this full body experience of our breath as a foundation for the exploration of a wide variety of specific approaches to breathing, and as a way to ground and orient our sense of self.
Amy Matthews, CMA, IDME, BMC Teacher, RSMT/RSME has been teaching movement since 1994. She is a Certified Laban Movement Analyst, a Body-Mind Centering® Teacher, an Infant Developmental Movement Educator, and a yoga therapist and yoga teacher.
Amy co-authored with Leslie Kaminoff the best-selling book Yoga Anatomy, and together Amy and Leslie co-direct The Breathing Project, a non-profit educational institution in NYC.
Amy directs the BMC® & Yoga programs in NYC and Portland, OR for the School for Body-Mind Centering, and was on the faculty of the Laban/Bartenieff Institute of Movement Studies for 10 years. She teaches embodied anatomy and movement in the USA and internationally.
Essentials of Diaphragmatic Biomechanics
with Leslie Kaminoff
Leslie will provide an in-depth look at the structure and function of the diaphragm from a unique perspective – its oft-neglected role as a muscle of postural support. With so much popular attention being paid to the concept of “core support,” there is actually a dearth of well-defined, functional definitions of “core” that take into account the enormously powerful role the diaphragm plays in modulating our relationship to gravity. Through audio-visual presentations, kinesthetic and experiential exploration, and dynamic interaction, Leslie will lead participants in a transformative journey into their breathing, thinking bodies.
Leslie Kaminoff is a yoga educator inspired by the tradition of T.K.V. Desikachar. For over three decades he has led workshops and developed specialized education in the fields of yoga, breath anatomy and bodywork. His approach to teaching combines intellectual rigor, spontaneity and humor, and is always evolving.
Leslie is the founder of The Breathing Project, a New York City based educational non-profit dedicated to teaching individualized, breath-centered yoga. His unique year-long yoga anatomy courses are now available online at yogaanatomy.net. He is the co-author, with Amy Matthews, of the best-selling book Yoga Anatomy.
UPDATE: Our Southern California workshop had to be postponed but will be rescheduled as soon as possible. Please contact You & the Mat for more information.
This fall I am embarking on an exciting teaching tour of four-day immersions. I really like this format because it’s inspired by the method of personalized teaching I received from my teacher, TKV Desikachar. Day-by-day, starting with conceptual basics, we’ll build on daily embodied practice, moving to observation with partners, clinical observation of client work, and methods of individualizing practice and teaching methodology.
Together, we will create an immersive experience, in an intimate space, with plenty of time to rest, settle and integrate the material.
I’ll be teaching a similar format, focusing on slightly different topics, in Southern California (You and the Mat, Laguna Niguel, CA), Honolulu (Silk Bridge, Oahu, HI) and Vienna (Yoga Zentrum, Vienna, Austria).
With bragging rights to what has become a multi-billion dollar industry at stake, the debate over who authentically “owns” yoga has never been more hotly contested. In presenting my contribution to this dispute, it is not my intent to ignore or disrespect the many centuries of deeply nuanced inquiry concerning the origins, definition or practice of Yoga — that is not my focus here. Instead, I propose a single question that would inextricably link Yoga’s definition to what I consider to be its true origin. And, the question is:
“Was Yoga invented, or discovered?”
If Yoga was invented, that means it didn’t exist on this planet prior to its development by ancient sages. Since those sages were Indian, their heirs could argue a claim to its authentic precepts, traditions and techniques — perhaps even rightful use of the word “Yoga” itself.
Many scholars, teachers and pundits assert this claim every time they cry out in the digital town square: “Yoga belongs to the Indian Vedic tradition!” This claim, of course, entitles them to proclaim everyone else to be stealing, corrupting, misinterpreting, misrepresenting, distorting, illicitly profiting from, or otherwise violating their sacred tradition.
I view this perspective to be fundamentally in error because Yoga was, in fact,discovered. I assert that Yoga could no more be invented or owned than electricity, gravity or respiration.
What the ancient sages discovered was: Yoga is an eternal, inherent attribute of nature that reveals itself as the tendency of living systems to seek equilibrium. The philosophy of Yoga seeks to understand that fundamental equilibrium, while its practice is the art of identifying and resolving any obstructions to this completely natural state.
Yoga, like gravity or electricity, is a force of nature which undeniably existed before we humans started recognizing or utilizing it for our betterment. My view has ample support in many traditional teachings, which I do not deny were codified by intrepid seekers dwelling on the ancient Indian subcontinent, and we should be forever grateful to and deeply respectful towards those pioneers who first delivered us Yoga’s potential. But, to limit Yoga’s definition, application or availability based on the geographical location of its discoverers would be as ludicrous as the British claiming perpetual patent rights to gravity because Sir Isaac Newton happened to have been born in Lincolnshire.
The “Vedic traditionalist” argument that Yoga has been misappropriated falls apart pretty quickly when viewed in the light of recent historical fact. The teachings of Yoga weren’t stolen from India by avaricious foreigners, they were given to the world by generous Indian masters.
My first Yoga teacher was Swami Vishnu Devananda — from Kerala by way of Rishikesh — whose guru Sivananda dispatched him from the ashram with specific instructions to spread Yoga to the entire world, which he did in his own charismatic, idiosyncratic, magnificent fashion. My core teaching lineage is that of T. Krishnamacharya — no slouch when it came to Vedic scholarship — who declared Yoga to be India’s greatest gift to the world. Never having crossed the sea himself, Krishnamacharya – that most traditional of Vedic Brahmins – nevertheless lived to see that gift permeate every corner of the globe as his students unreservedly shared his highly adaptable teachings with anyone willing to simply show up, be still and try.
It’s important to note that upon exiting his teacher’s Tibetan cave 90 years ago, Krishnamacharya’s payment to his guru in exchange for the teachings was a promise to complete a life-long, arduous task: he was charged with becoming a householder, raising a family, and sharing what he had learned. For a high-born, deeply religious Brahmin scholar like himself, this was no small promise — in fact, it was the biggest promise he could possibly have made. The India of 1925 had long rejected her own gift, and Yogis were held by most of society in the lowest esteem possible, associated with street beggars, fakirs, criminals and frauds. The tireless work of Krishnamacharya and his contemporaries resurrected, in decades, what it took India centuries to discard.
The worldwide renaissance of Yoga could never have happened if those relentless, magnanimous, Indian masters had limited their teachings to the rarefied strata of the upper castes — the same Vedic banner-wavers who are now crowing so loudly about how misguided, unschooled thieves have absconded with their precious heritage.
Yoga, if it’s nothing else, is a living, breathing, adaptable lineage of learning — open to all. It both transforms and is transformed by its practitioners. It belongs to everyone because it is part of how everyone’s living system operates. It would be the height of narrow-minded folly to think you can collect patent royalties on something that wasn’t invented in the first place. You don’t own Yoga. You can only own your Yoga.
Should you feel the need to admonish someone for not practicing or teaching a “true” Yoga, I urge you to reflect on your attitude and let it go — by offering it into the flame of Yoga — swaha. Why waste your energy obsessing about how anyone else — past or present — has chosen to interpret Yoga? It is quite literally none of your business. The dividend of this offering will be an enormous energy savings that can be re-invested into a far more profitable enterprise — uncovering your own true Yoga in the only place it’s ever been, within yourself.
The fire is hot, the water cold, refreshing cool the breeze of morn; By whom came this variety? from their own nature was it born..
Brahmins have established their splendid rituals for the dead; but there are no souls in other worlds — it’s just their means of livelihood. *
July 22, 2015
* Freely adapted and condensed from Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha by Madhava Acharya, translation by E. B. Cowell and A. E. Gough
If you wish to express a counterpoint, please note that a pull quote and a hyperlink do not constitute an argument of any kind, much less a convincing rebuttal. With the exception of the cited poetry, what you have just read is 100% original — it was typed straight from my brain through my fingers. I sincerely request that any commenters offering dissenting views respect the spirit of my efforts, and do the same.
If, however, you totally agree with me, feel free to post anything you want. 😉
I’ve had the opportunity lately to work with a number of singers and voice actors. When they tell me about some of the instructions and information they’ve been given, I never cease to be amazed by the lack of basic understanding exhibited by their vocal coaches. Admittedly, this impression comes entirely secondhand, but If I could send a message to all the voice trainers of the world it would be this:
Singing first and foremost is a breathing pattern. This breathing pattern consists of long, slow, supported, vibratory exhales, followed by short, quick, efficient inhales. The ability to do that breathing pattern must be the foundation for all vocal techniques, and if you are not training a singer’s body to efficiently execute that pattern, they will invariably have problems.
Perhaps the statements of this yoga teacher will be viewed as presumptuous by the voice community, but consider this: you do not need to be an expert in auto mechanics to know that the fanciest car will go nowhere without a functioning engine. Similarly, I do not need need to be schooled in vocal pedagogy to know that an efficiently operating breathing mechanism is quite literally the engine that makes singing possible.
Is the diaphragm important in this process? Of course it is, but the diaphragm is a muscle of inhaling, while singing is 90% exhaling. This means that the diaphragm is shortening its fibers only 10% of the time during most vocal phrasing. What, then do vocal coaches *really* mean when they tell a vocalist to “sing from your diaphragm?”
If you are a voice coach, and you can’t answer this question accurately, you need to educate yourself.
If you are a voice student reading this, and this is brand-new information to you, I would encourage you to show this article to your voice coach, see what they say, and if they have questions, please send them my way. I’d love to have this conversation first-hand for a change.
A student in my online Yoga Anatomy Course asked a simple question in reference to a lesson about the muscular action of the diaphragm. My response is a good example of how studying basic kinesiology can help us understand that muscle relationships are always contextual and complex.
The question was: “The fibers of the diaphragm are oriented vertically, do the fibers contract on the inhale or the exhale?”
Here’s my answer:
Well, the simple answer is “on the inhale.”
Problem is, there’s no such thing as “the” inhale. Every inhale (and exhale for that matter) places a unique demand on the body’s musculature – depending on what movement we’re doing, what position we are in relative to gravity, and what our intentions are (among many other factors).
Mechanically, inhaling is the act of increasing volume in the thoracic cavity through muscular action. The key muscle involved in that action is the diaphragm, and a concentric action shortens the distance between its lower and upper attachments, thereby increasing all three dimensions of thoracic volume.
But, the diaphragm can also be actively contracting during an exhale when an eccentric action allows its attachments to move away from each other in a controlled way (think of doing a very slow curling sit-up as you exhale).
Even more confusing is the fact that the diaphragm can be relaxed and relatively passive during both inhaling and exhaling – as in Kapalabhati.
These are just the basics of how complex an answer to that question could be.